Camera Modes

Automatic Mode allows your camera to use its best judgement to select shutter speed, aperture, ISO, white balance, focus and flash to take the best shot that it can.

Portrait Mode helps keep your background out of focus, ensuring your subject is the only thing in focus.

Macro Mode lets you move closer into your subject to take a close-up picture.

Landscape Mode sets the camera up with a small aperture, ensuring the scene your photographing is in focus as much as possible.

Sports Mode attempts to freeze the action by increasing the shutter speed.

Night Mode is for shooting in low light situations and sets your camera to use a longer shutter speed to help capture details of the background, but it also fires off a flash to illuminate the foreground.

Movie Mode extends your digital camera from just capturing still images to capturing moving ones.

Aperture Priority Mode (A or AV) is a semi-automatic mode where you can choose the aperture and where your camera chooses the other settings to ensure you have a well-balanced exposure.

Shutter Priority Mode (S or TV) is like aperture priority mode but you select a shutter speed and the camera then chooses all the other settings.

Program Mode (P) gives you a little more control over some other features including flash, white balance, ISO, etc.

Manual Mode gives you full control over your camera, including all the settings.


  1. There are several types of lenses including: zooms, primes, macro, telephoto, fisheyes, etc.
  2.  The cost of the lens depends on numerous factors.
  3. Wide angles give a wide expensive view and can wrap you in the scene.
  4. Standard lenses tend to range from about 35mm up to around 85mm.
  5. Fisheyes can give a 180° field of view.
  6. Wide angles should be used when prominent foreground objects are present.
  7. More expensive lenses have a fixed aperture.
  8. Telephoto lenses are useful when it comes to shooting landscapes, sports, wildlife, and nature.
  9. Wide angles are useful in tricky areas, like small rooms, caves, etc.
  10. Less expensive lenses will generally have variable apertures.
  11.  Prime lenses are lenses that are just one focal length.
  12. Telephoto zooms are extremely useful for portraiture.
  13. Standard zooms are generally included in many SLR kits that come with lenses.
  14. A “fast” lens is usually one that has an aperture of f/4, f/2.8 or larger.
  15. Wide angles can drastically change your photography.
  16. Telephoto lenses make everything appear closer.
  17. Lenses in the standard zoom range will cover moderate wide angles.
  18. Standard zoom lenses are versatile, allowing both for wide angle work such as a landscape, or zooming in to the telephoto end of the lens to take a great portrait.
  19. 18-55mm, 18-135mm, 24-105mm, 24-70mm, and others are popular standard zooms.
  20. Wide angle lenses can give volume to a small area.

Depth of Field Explained

Depth of field refers to how much depth in your image is in focus. Shallow depth of field is when the background is blurred, and the main focus is clear. Deep depth of field is when everything in the shot is clear and sharp.

You can alter your depth of field by adjusting the aperture of your lens. The narrower the aperture is, the deeper the depth of field. A wide-open aperture can create a softer background with a shallow depth of field. Distance also affects depth of field. The closer your camera is to your main focus, the shallower depth of field you will have. However, aperture and distance are just a few of the many methods there are. Therefore, there are various techniques and tactics when it comes to shooting depth of field.